Category Archives: evolution

Impossibility of Life Coming From Nonlife Frustrates Evolutionists

Let’s consider the following quote:
“Now Imagine 100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 blind persons each with a scrambled Rubik cube, and try to conceive of the chance of them all simultaneously arriving at the solved form. You then have the chance at arriving by random shuffling of just one of the many biopolymers [proteins] on which life depends. The notion that not only the biopolymers but the operating programme of a living cell could be arrived at by chance in a primordial organic soup here on the Earth is evidently nonsense of a high order.”

The above quote passionately argues that the first living cell could not have happened by chance. Who do you suppose wrote those words? Could it have been Billy Graham or some other evangelist? Could it have been the Pope or other high Catholic cleric? Could it have been Israel’s chief rabbi or perhaps a leading Muslim imam? No, the man who wrote those words was the famous British astronomer and cosmologist, Sir Fred Hoyle FRS, a self proclaimed atheist. Hoyle, along with many other leading scientists, over the years, did the math on the complexity of the proteins (biopolymers) of the cell. They see that there is a vanishingly small possibility of even one protein forming by random collisions of atoms.

I have a book filled with hundreds of quotes by secular evolutionist scientists that refute evolution. It’s titled: “That Their Words May Be Used Against Them: Quotes from Evolutionists Useful for Creationists” by Henry Morris, Master Books, 1997. These quotes are from evolutionists, who frankly admit the dubiousness of the scientific underpinnings of the Darwinian theory they publicly claim to believe. These are believers in Darwinism who have, nevertheless, expressed serious doubts. Their quotes are devastating to Darwinism and abiogenesis.

Abiogenesis, also called chemical evolution or “life from nonlife” is the claim that the first living cell came into being through the churning of nonliving chemicals in the primordial soup. Abiogenesis is one of many Achilles’ heels of evolution. A study of the current state of abiogenesis reveals that there are many competing hypotheses of how the first living cell could have formed by unguided unintelligent processes in the early earth.

Theories of abiogenesis currently being studied, promoted and debated include: Deep Sea Vent Theory, Eigen’s hypothesis, Wachtershauser’s hypothesis, Radioactive beach hypothesis, “Genes first” models, “Metabolism first” models, Gold’s “Deep-hot biosphere” model and several others. Notice that several of them are called “hypothesis.” In fact, all of them can be called hypotheses. The term, “hypothesis” essentially means they are below the status of a theory. “Hypo” means “below,” hence “below theory.”

A hypothesis is below a theory because a hypothesis is merely a suggested explanation of phenomena without much evidence. A real theory, such as Einstein’s theory of relativity, is based on much evidence. Relativity has been repeatedly tested and proven by experimental science. The hypotheses of abiogenesis make claims about events that allegedly occurred in the distant past. The life from nonlife hypotheses are essentially stories about what may have happened in the early earth. It is art, not science. It is the art of the storyteller. It is educated men making educated guesses.

In fact, Darwinism itself, though often called “the theory of evolution,” is also really just a hypothesis because it has to do with claims of nonrepeatable events alleged to have occurred in the distant past. Micro-evolution is minor changes in the gene pool of livestock caused by cross breeding which ranchers do every day. Macro-evolution is the radical change of one life form into another such as fish to amphibian. Macro-evolution has never been observed in real time.

The very fact that there are many abiogenesis hypotheses is evidence that scientists are divided and confused. Scientists are befuddled by the mind-bogglingly small probability of random collisions of atoms forming a living cell. Also, origin-of-life scientists have not been able to manufacture a living cell in the laboratory. If random formation of life from nonlife were possible by accident in nature, one would certainly expect scientists would be able to build a simple life form in the lab on purpose. They cannot.

The definition of a living organism is that it must be able to eat, excrete and reproduce. A virus is not a living thing because viruses don’t eat or excrete and they depend on a host cell’s DNA to reproduce. The smallest living things are mycoplasmas which are bacteria that don’t have cell walls. Mycoplasmas have cell membranes but no cell walls. This makes many of them immune to antibiotics. Scientists have not been able to build a mycoplasma or any other “simple” bacteria in the lab. The J. Craig Venter Institute recently synthesized DNA and inserted it into a mycoplasma. They did not build artificial life. They did not build a complete mycoplasma nor did they claim to do so.

The DNA of a mycoplasma can contain over three quarters of a million nucleotide base pairs, all precisely sequenced. Microbiologists now know that the simplest cells are constructed using more than 200 distinct proteins. Even an ordinary protein is immensely complex. An average protein is composed of over 400 amino acids arranged in precise sequence. These 200 plus proteins (along with DNA and RNA) then have to be assembled into a living cell.

Such a “simple” cell, with all of its cellular machinery to build proteins, and its ability to reproduce by cell division is more complex than the computer you’re using to read this. To say it could form by chance is a secular leap of faith. Darwinism is a strained hypothesis. Darwinism is faith, not science. The scientific confusion and frustration over abiogenesis is one more reason for the collapse of evolution. Secular evolutionists want us to bet our souls that there is no God. They do it on the basis of weak hypotheses and wishful thinking. I bet my soul that there is a God! “In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth” (Gen. 1:1).

Darwinism is the taproot of secularism. When Darwinism goes down, the whole secular edifice falls with it. The wreckage of humanistic denial of God’s law is evident. The rejection of Christian traditional marriage has resulted in broken families, neglected and abandoned children and the mass murder of the preborn. Millions of women are raising their children alone and in poverty.

God created human beings with a purpose and that purpose is to know God and to enjoy Him forever (Westminster Catechism). God has provided for forgiveness of sins by sending Jesus of Nazareth, the promised Messiah of Israel. Jesus came in fulfillment of over 300 prophecies which were written in the Old Testament hundreds of years before His birth. The prophets foretold that He would suffer and die and take the penalty of our sins upon Himself. They foretold that Christ would rise from the dead to offer forgiveness of sins to all who repent and call upon Him. Turn to Christ today to receive forgiveness of sins!

Steps to salvation:
Jesus said “Ye must be born again” (John 3:7).

1) Believe that God created you and loves you and sent the Messiah (Messiah is Hebrew for Christ) to redeem you.
2) Believe that Jesus Christ came in fulfillment of over 300 Bible prophecies to die for you, to take upon Himself the penalty of your sins (Isaiah 53:5-6, John 6:29, Romans 4:5, First Peter 3:18).
3) Turn from sin and call on the name of Jesus to receive forgiveness of sins (Romans 10:13).
4) Receive Jesus as Savior and experience the new birth (John 1:12, Acts 2:38).
5) Follow Jesus Christ as Lord (John 14:15).

Prayer to receive salvation:

“Whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved” (Romans 10:13).
To receive the salvation that Jesus purchased for us at the terrible cost of His suffering and death on our behalf I invite you to pray this simple prayer:

“Dear heavenly Father, I thank you for sending Jesus, the promised Messiah, to die for my sins. I admit that I am a sinner. I repent of my sins and I ask you to forgive me on the basis of the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. I ask you to fill me with your Holy Spirit to empower me to serve you under the Lordship of Jesus Christ, Amen.”

If you prayed this prayer in the humble sincerity of your heart then you have received everlasting life, which includes power to live right in this life and entrance into heaven in the afterlife!

Bill Nugent, Overcomer Ministries of Fort Mill, South Carolina, USA email:sonshipmes@aol.com
Christian book, Lawful or Legalistic by Bill Nugent available in paperback!
Info and ordering link available at his website: http://www.bnugent.org

Back issues of Defending the Faith archived on website. {
(C) 2018 William P. Nugent, permission granted to email or republish for Christian outreach.

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Biochemistry Professor Refutes Evolution With Irreducible Complexity

by Bill Nugent

 

Michael Behe, Ph. D., professor of biochemistry at Lehigh University and author of Darwin’s Black Box has lectured on the fact that single celled organisms such as bacteria are not only complex but their complexity is irreducible. Irreducible complexity means that if just one component of a complex system is missing then that system is nonfunctional.

    

Dr. Behe claims that the first living cell had to form all at once or not at all. He maintains that it is impossible for a cell to form piece by piece because none of the cell’s parts can function without the others. If a cell bio-chemical, such as DNA, somehow formed by random collisions of atoms it would not last long. The DNA would immediately dissolve because it had no other cell structures to protect it. The fruit of all the amazing (and statistically impossible) chemical coincidences that randomly formed a long chain DNA molecule would be instantly lost.

   

Dr. Behe used the illustration of a mousetrap. A mousetrap consists of a small board, a spring, a bar, a lever, a bait holder and bait. If any part is missing, it won’t function. It won’t perform the simple function of catching a mouse. Now try to imagine a mousetrap forming randomly in nature. By a bizarre coincidence erosion from an iron deposit yields a steel spring attached to a curved steel bar. this naturally formed mechanism somehow, by blind chance becomes attached to a piece of wood. Another piece of metal washes up and gets attached to it and acts like a lever to hold the spring open but since there’s no bait holder or bait the system cannot catch any mice and the whole thing simply rusts away into oblivion.

   

A cell nucleus, mitochondria, protoplasm and other organelles are far more complex than any mousetrap. Each of these cellular organelles, along with their unfathomable complexity of proteins, RNA, DNA and other biochemicals must form simultaneously and then be assembled immediately. For any person to teach that this happened by random, unguided processes enters into the realm of unscientific speculation and storytelling.

   

The concept of irreducible complexity is not limited to the analysis of single celled organisms. Every organ system in every living thing is seen to be irreducibly complex. For instance, the wings of an insect, so exquisitely formed as a miniature flying machine with perfect size, surface area and musculature are useless unless all parts are present and fully formed.

 

The principle of irreducible complexity applies to the retractable fangs, venom bladder, venom ducts and mouth musculature of a rattlesnake.  Partial formation of the fang and poison system of the snake would be disadvantageous and such a freakish, partially formed poisonous snake would be eliminated by natural selection. Therefore a very large number of favorable genetic mutations must occur simultaneously to form a complete fang and bladder system. This is a statistical impossibility.

   

Early in the 20th century researchers irradiated fruit flies in order to cause genetic mutations and bring evolutionary change. Fruit flies have short life spans and many generations can be observed in a short period. The radiation only produced deformed fruit flies and the experiment was abandoned. Famous evolutionist, Richard Goldschmidt, irradiated generations of Gypsy moths and only got dead or deformed moths.

   

I chuckle when I read of the excitement at NASA over the recent discovery of the evidence that water once existed on Mars. Some secularists even express faith that life could have formed on Mars because water was there. Knowing what scientists have discovered about the complexity of “simple” microorganisms, any speculation that life could have formed randomly in water on Mars is just wishful thinking on the part of those who reject God as creator.

   

Dr. Behe has shown through his elucidation of irreducible complexity that life could not have formed randomly. The foundation of Darwinian evolution is therefore totally destroyed. This is just one more proof that there is an intelligent designer of life. The intelligent designer is God.

   

God has spoken to humanity. His revelatory words are recorded in the Bible. The Bible has the ring of truth because it is confirmed by archeology, history, science and manuscript evidence. It is also confirmed by the many predictive prophecies contained in its pages that are authentically and verifiably fulfilled. The natural and supernatural backing of the Bible’s claim to be inspired by God is convincing. The Bible is in a class by itself and no other alleged holy book has anything like the mountain of evidence that confirms that the Bible is inspired by God.

 

Three Major Scientific Issues that Disprove Darwinian Evolution

There were two fleas on the back of a large dog. They were deep in the fur and nestled on the warm skin of the dog. One flea says to the other flea: “Sometimes I wonder if there really is a dog.” (from the cartoon, The Far Side).

 

The evidence for the existence of the dog was all around the fleas. It reminds me of the fact that the evidence for the existence of God is all around people. It seems like we have too much evidence. Sometimes we can’t see the forest because of the trees.

 

Today I’d like to point out three major scientific issues that disprove Darwinian evolution. Why refute Darwinism? Why do I pick on Charles Darwin? It’s because Darwinism is the taproot of secularism. It’s the origins myth of materialistic atheism. Evolution is the cornerstone of the edifice of unbelief. All the errors and brutality of modern society flow out of the rejection of God as creator. Darwinian evolution leads to atheism which leads to lawlessness, fascism, communism, genocide, abortion and sexual immorality.

 

The “Three strikes, you’re out” method of refuting Darwinian evolution focuses on three riddles Darwinism cannot solve. These three riddles are:


1) Due to the extreme complexity of the simplest living cell, the first life could not possibly have formed by random collisions of atoms in the early earth.

 

2) The science of genetics proves that genetic mutations are destructive errors in the DNA and mutations don’t add useful information to the DNA. Mutations degrade and garble genetic coding. New biological structures require new base pairs added to DNA. Evolution has no genetic mechanism to add new structures to living organisms.

 

3) The fossil record shows numerous examples of fossils out of order, including hundreds of examples of modern looking bird and mammal fossils in the Cretaceous dinosaur rock layers.

 

Let’s look closer at each of these three riddles one at a time:

 

Riddle #1:  The first riddle is the fact of the extreme complexity of the simplest living cell. Origin of life biologists can’t even agree on a standard theory of a random process for how DNA, RNA and proteins could have formed by chance and assembled themselves into a living cell. Science works against Darwinism here because the more microbiology progresses, the more it reveals the irreducible complexity and interdependence of structures within the simplest of single-celled organisms.

 

For instance, a single celled algae is able to produce sugars by photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is an extremely complex process involving a multitude of enzymes and co-factors to turn light energy into chemical energy.

 

Seventeen enzymes are required to assemble chlorophyll. Each enzyme is a complex molecule. If one enzyme is missing chlorophyll is not made. There are many other steps in photosynthesis. Darwinists claim photosynthesis came about by accident, by random unguided processes in the early earth. There is, however, no conceivable step by step process that could produce the complex proteins and enzymes and assemble them by happenstance into photosynthesis structures within cells even in a trillion years.

 

Riddle #2:  As the field of modern genetics progresses we learn more and more about mutations to DNA. The DNA molecule is a long string of nucleotide base pairs which contain design information like words in a book. Genetic mutations scramble or delete nucleotide base pairs in the DNA. Darwinism requires the addition of vast amounts of new, precisely ordered information into the DNA. Mutations result in degraded information, garbled information or loss of information but never adding the type of quality information that could have put feathers on a reptile to make a bird. Even mutations that cause duplication of a gene don’t add information but merely duplicate information that was already in the DNA.

 

Mutations are typically caused by radiation or toxic chemicals that interfere with the replication of DNA during cell division. Radiation and toxic chemicals do not bring new nucleotide base pairs into the DNA to add new coding to the DNA. It would take a huge amount of new base pairs added to the DNA, for instance, to add the design of wings to enable a small rodent to evolve into a bat. Not only do thousands of new base pairs have to be added to the DNA but they have to be properly sequenced. Random processes simply cannot do this. The science of genetics is no friend of Darwinian evolution.

 

Riddle #3:  Dr. Carl Werner, in his book Living Fossils gives much evidence, presented in a scholarly, academic way that documents the fact that mammal and bird fossils have been found in the Cretaceous rock layers among dinosaur fossils. Dr. Werner visited sixty natural history museums and ten dinosaur dig sites in seven countries and consulted paleontologists who revealed the finds of owls, ducks, parrots and other modern birds among dinosaur fossils. Mammal fossils have also been found in abundance among dinosaur fossils. The mammal fossils resemble modern squirrels, beavers, primates and many others.

 

Dr. Werner interviewed paleontologist Dr. William Clemons of University of California, Berkeley. Clemons told Werner of the finding of a parrot fossil and many other bird fossils in a dinosaur fossil rock layer. This, of course, is totally inconsistent with Darwinism and refutes the theory. Darwinian evolutionists claim that dinosaurs are the ancestors of birds yet many modern birds are fossilized together with dinosaurs.

 

The fossil record is consistent with the longstanding creationist claim that an intelligent designer, namely the creator God, created all living things in substantially the same forms as they are today. God created life that reproduces “after their kind” (Genesis 1:25). One kind of animal does not reproduce into a different kind of animal.

 

In the three riddles, science is working against Darwinian evolution. New findings in microbiologygenetics and the fossil record are undermining the claims of evolution. The long knives of scientific facts are circling Darwinism and cutting it to pieces. As Darwinian evolution is exposed as inconsistent with documented scientific evidence it is rejected by more and more people. The secularists have no other origins myth to replace the crumbling Darwinian hypothesis.

 

The bottom line is that all people, including scientists, must return to the creator God. I’m pleased and encouraged by the growing number of scientists who have become creationists. Some have affiliated with the  Institute for Creation Research and other creationist organizations. Many secular scientists have become part of the Intelligent Design movement.and have affiliated with The Discovery Institute based in Seattle, Washington.

 

The collapse of Darwinism has caused many people to take a new look at Christianity. When Jesus came to the Jewish people, He worked miracles of healing in the presence of eyewitnesses that proved He was sent by God. Miracles of healing still occur today in meetings held by Christian evangelists and pastors.

 

Jesus came in fulfillment of over 300 Old Testament prophecies. The prophets foretold that Christ would come and live a sinless life and then suffer and die, taking upon Himself the penalty we deserved for our sins, thereby making atonement. Christ rose from the dead to offer forgiveness of sins to all who call upon Him. Those who receive forgiveness walk with God in a personal one-on-one relationship with God. It’s a love relationship with God. Turn to Christ today to receive forgiveness of sins!

 

The Experiment that Shook the World

In 1953 the news flashed around the world that Stanley Miller, Ph. D. had formed amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) by shooting electricity through a simulated early earth atmosphere. This was a bold attempt to try to prove that single-celled organisms such as bacteria could form by random interaction of energy and chemicals.

This experiment was gleefully cited in biology lectures and textbooks all over the world. Secular evolutionists claimed it was proof that life could come from nonliving chemicals. I should point out that Stanley Miller, being a respected biologist, never claimed to have produced “life in a test tube” or anything close. He did claim it was a step in that direction. Miller’s modesty didn’t prevent others from hyping the significance of his experiments.

I remember a discussion of the Miller-Urey experiments in my high school biology class in the early seventies. (They were called Miller-Urey experiments because Miller was assisted by his doctoral mentor, Harold Urey.) Some of the students were persuaded that life could come from nonlife even though it was totally absurd to make such a bold leap of faith.

According to origin of life scientist Walter L. Bradley, Ph.D. and many other learned observers, the experiment contained major flaws that invalidated its results. To begin with, Miller used a simulated atmosphere composed largely of ammonia, methane and hydrogen. It was a very bold assumption on Miller’s part to assume that the early earth atmosphere was composed of these highly reactive gases.

Secondly, Miller isolated the amino acids and protected them from the simulated atmosphere as soon as the amino acids formed. He also formed a large amount of tar or resin. The newly formed amino acids were collected and sequestered. He knew that the amino acids would otherwise be immediately destroyed by the same processes used to form them! Miller stacked the deck very favorably and obtained some very bare chemical building blocks. This did not even remotely prove that life could come from nonlife.

Nevertheless, generations of Americans, indeed, people all over the world, have read in their biology textbooks that this experiment gave some degree of proof to the claim that life could form from random interaction of nonliving molecules. (Life coming from nonlife is also called spontaneous generation or proto-evolution or chemical evolution or abiogenesis.) The Miller-Urey experiment unquestionably served to buttress atheistic materialism and therefore has served to accelerate the secularization of Western Civilization.

As a personal note, I remember talking about God with a young man back when I was in college. The young man resisted my claim that God is creator. He said “Didn’t they form life in a test tube a few years ago?” The young guy was no doubt referring to Miller’s famous experiment.

Miller continued with his experiments but none of his later experiments generated either convincing results or great publicity.

Even if one were to grant that amino acids could form randomly and be preserved, this is still a long, long way from their being gathered together to form a living cell. A living cell is more complex than the computer you’re using to read this! There are about 80 different types of amino acids but only about 20 are found in living organisms. Some amino acids are toxic to living things. The 20 correct amino acids have to be randomly sorted out and then randomly assembled into proteins which are very complex molecules. An average protein is composed of over 400 amino acids arranged in precise order.

A “simple” one-celled organism is composed of at minimum 225 different varieties of proteins, assembled in a structure consisting of cell membrane, protoplasm, mitochondria, nucleus, etc. All of this has to occur by a blind, mindless process in a primordial chemical soup composed of tars and other byproducts that bond more readily to amino acids than amino acids bond to each other!

As the field of microbiology has progressed, the impossibility of single-celled organisms forming by chance is more and more apparent. Microbiologists uncover new layers of cellular complexity with each passing year. There is not even a generally accepted theory in place among origin of life scientists to explain how life could form by chance. Many bizarre theories have been put forward but none has been generally accepted.

Even the illustrious biologist Dean Kenyon of San Francisco State University  repudiated chemical affinity theory. Chemical affinity theory is a theory of life origins that Kenyon once championed. Dean Kenyon had the academic integrity to openly renounce this theory when experiments revealed its flaws.

Finally Stanley Miller himself who, perhaps unwittingly, misled generations of science students, had this to say to Scientific American in the February 1991 issue: “The problem of the origin of life has turned out to be much more difficult than I, and most other people envisioned.” A great understatement indeed!

In order to solve the problem of the origin of life I would exhort Dr. Miller to turn to God. God has created us and God sent His Son Jesus to die in our place to take upon Himself the penalty for our sins so that we can be reconciled to God.

(For much of the material in this article I’m indebted to Lee Strobel’s book The Case for Faith pages 129-151.)

“And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.” Genesis 1:2

Steps to salvation: “Whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved” (Romans 10:13)

 

To receive the salvation that Jesus purchased for us at the terrible cost of His suffering and death on our behalf I invite you to pray this simple prayer:

“Dear heavenly Father, I thank you for sending Jesus, the promised Messiah, to die for my sins. I admit that I am a sinner and I ask for your forgiveness on the basis of the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. I ask you to fill me with your Holy Spirit to empower me to serve you under the Lordship of Jesus Christ, Amen.”  If you prayed that prayer in the humble sincerity of your heart then you have received everlasting life, which includes power to live right in this life and entrance into heaven in the afterlife!

 

Bill Nugent, Overcomer Ministries of Fort Mill, South Carolina, USA  New Christian book, Lawful or Legalistic by Bill Nugent available in paperback! Info and ordering link available on his website: http://www.bnugent.org

My Personal Journey Through Darwinian Evolution

Sitting in public school science class in the fifth grade, I saw a classmate flip through an evolution picture book. The boy excitedly exclaimed that apes could turn into people over time.  I got a dramatic lesson in evolution in that teachable moment. I was converted to the religion of blind chance plus apes equals human beings. It was the year 1966 and I had recently made the transition from Catholic parochial school to public school. I went from being a devout Catholic to budding atheist within a few months.

 

Darwinism is the taproot of secularism. Darwinian evolution is the origins myth of atheism. Darwinism is taught in public schools at taxpayer expense and it destroys the faith of many. I was one of millions of young people who cast aside Christian faith and morals.

 

I was a very serious little boy. Before my embrace of atheism I was very religious and conscientious. I was the teacher’s pet. I observed things. I analyzed and pondered. For years I paid close attention in religion class in Saint Mary’s Elementary School in Katonah, New York. I remember a nun teaching me that Christ was raised from the dead. My parents took me to Saint Mary’s church every Sunday. I went to confession every few months and did acts of contrition as commanded to me by the priests.

 

Paradoxically, I also had a great interest in nature. I loved the outdoor world. I spent countless hours at nearby Todd’s Pond, catching turtles and frogs. I also had an interest in dinosaurs and fossils. My parents took me to the Museum of Natural History in New York City. The full scale skeletons of dinosaurs were fascinating for adults, much more so to an impressionable child.

 

I learned about fossils and paleontology at an earlier age than most kids in the New York City suburbs. My inordinate interest in fossils set me up for the public school lessons on atheistic, blind chance, goo to you by way of the zoo, Darwinian evolution. I swallowed it hook line and sinker. The public school teachers seldom mentioned the gaps in the fossil record or the lack of transitional forms.

 

My devout Catholicism fell by the wayside. Atheism seemed so liberating. I didn’t have to obey religious laws, rules, precepts and commands. I could make my own rules and break any rules anytime. I could live for myself and live for pleasure. I began to live recklessly and got into trouble.

 

As a ten year old kid I didn’t do much in the way of grievous sin or varsity venality. As I got older, though, my troubles increased. As I got bigger, my sins got bigger. Foul language and schoolboy pranks grew into drugs, drunkenness and larceny. I was headed downhill fast by the time I arrived on college campus in the fall of ’74.

 

Getting back to my public school lessons on evolution, I found it easy to believe that the accumulation of beneficial mutations in DNA could change one animal into another. We studied genetics in biology class in the ninth grade. It all seemed so simple and so reasonable. Reasonable, that is, until you looked at it a little more closely. In my extensive studies in genetics since those early boyhood years, I’ve come to find out that beneficial genetic mutations are an extremely tiny percentage of the overall number of mutations. Mutations are overwhelmingly destructive to the DNA.

 

Any internet search of genetic diseases will show thousands of diseases and conditions caused by bad mutations. Thousands of diseases caused by genetic mutations are listed on websites all over the internet. There are only a few, perhaps a dozen, beneficial genetic mutations in the human genome being studied. Any geneticist will freely admit that beneficial mutations are extremely rare. Creationists and even many nonreligious scientists see this as a major flaw in the evolution hypothesis. I wish I knew that when I was ten or fifteen or eighteen years old!

 

Also consider that mutations don’t add new information to the DNA that would cause the addition of new biological structures. The mutagenic chemicals and radiation that causes mutations don’t bring new, additional nucleotide base pairs to the DNA. Nucleotide base pairs are like letters of words giving information in DNA. It would take thousands, if not millions of new base pairs added to the DNA to put wings on a lizard to make a bird or add a smart brain to an ape to make a human. Radiation does not add base pairs to DNA.

 

Now, many years after my primary school indoctrination into the church of Darwin, I look at nature in a different way. I see superbly engineered, fine tuned biological structures. I see the retractable poisonous fangs of a snake with its poison bladders and ducts. How could that gradually form, step by step, by accident? I read that it takes 30 muscles to flap the wings of an insect. The metamorphosis of a caterpillar into a butterfly is an amazingly complex and inscrutable process in a “simple” lower form of life. These structures are irreducibly complex, meaning that a partially formed organ system such as the fangs of a snake would be very disadvantageous. The fang and poison bladder system of a snake would have to be formed all at once or not at all.

 

Mutations simply shuffle pre-existing base pairs in DNA, usually causing a loss of information. There is virtually never a net gain of any useful information in DNA caused by mutations. Even genetic duplication is just an extra copy of pre-existing base pairs in the DNA.

 

In public school I was not informed of the glaring flaws in the theory of evolution. The genetic evidence and even the fossil evidence that undermined Darwinism was seldom, if ever discussed. There are many skunks in the woodpile of Darwinism. I was not allowed to see them or smell them. Darwinism was taught in a biased way as the dogma of a new secular faith. It would be many years later that I would read scientific literature that exposed the major shortcomings of Darwinism.

 

However, as a young teenager, I began to hear of reports of Christian miracles. There were reliable reports of extraordinary miraculous healings that occurred in answer to prayer. My own father, Paul C. Nugent, told me of some accounts of miracles.

 

The nuns in Catholic school had taught me, back when I was in parochial school, that the prophets foretold the coming of Christ. Fulfillment of prophecy is also a type of miracle. I pondered these things. As a young atheist, hearing about miracles and reflecting on my boyhood Christian training, I began to doubt atheism.

 

I also came to find out that Christ died for our sins. Christ died in our place. The prophets foretold in Isaiah 53 and other Old Testament passages that Christ, in His suffering and death, would bear the penalty of our sins. I never understood that or had it clearly explained to me in my parochial school training in Catholicism. The nuns taught many things from the Bible and from the Catholic catechism but I don’t remember anything on substitutionary atonement.

 

I eventually learned that the Bible teaches that our good works can’t earn salvation. Good works are important but only the atoning death of Christ could pay the penalty of our sins and give us forgiveness of sins and right standing with God.

 

“For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: Not of works, lest any man should boast” (Ephesians 2:8-9). “For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God” (First Peter 3:18).

 

I turned away from my sins as a young man in college and made a commitment to Christ. I received Christ as Savior and I follow Him as Lord. I left evolution behind. I regard Darwinism as a flawed hypothesis. I continue to enjoy nature and I realize that even nature itself, by its very complexity, reveals the work of the Creator. I invite you to turn to Christ today to receive forgiveness of sins.

 

Steps to salvation: Jesus said “Ye must be born again” (John 3:7).

1) Believe that God created you and loves you and sent the Messiah (Messiah is Hebrew for Christ) to redeem you.

2) Believe that Jesus Christ came in fulfillment of over 300 Bible prophecies to die for you, to take upon Himself the penalty of your sins (Isaiah 53:5-6, John 6:29, Romans 4:5, First Peter 3:18).

3) Turn from sin and call on the name of Jesus to receive forgiveness of sins (Romans 10:13).

4) Receive Jesus as Savior and experience the new birth (John 1:12, Acts 2:38).

5) Follow Jesus Christ as Lord (John 14:15).

Prayer to receive salvation:

“Whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved” (Romans 10:13). To receive the salvation that Jesus purchased for us at the terrible cost of His suffering and death on our behalf I invite you to pray this simple prayer: 

“Dear heavenly Father, I thank you for sending Jesus, the promised Messiah, to die for my sins. I admit that I am a sinner. I repent of my sins and I ask you to forgive me on the basis of the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. I ask you to fill me with your Holy Spirit to empower me to serve you under the Lordship of Jesus Christ, Amen.” 

If you prayed this prayer in the humble sincerity of your heart then you have received everlasting life, which includes power to live right in this life and entrance into heaven in the afterlife!

Bill Nugent, Overcomer Ministries of Fort Mill, South Carolina, USA

Christian book, Lawful or Legalistic by Bill Nugent available in paperback!  Info and ordering link available at his website: www.bnugent.org

(C) 2017 William P. Nugent, permission granted to email or republish for Christian outreach.

CAT Scans of Fossil Skulls Disprove Alleged Human Ancestors

by Bill Nugent

The CAT scan has not only revolutionized diagnostic medicine but has also revolutionized the study of fossil skulls. Dr. Fred Spoor, Anatomist at University College, London and joint editor of the Journal of Human Evolution has done CAT scans of many fossil skulls put forward by paleoanthropologists as potential human ancestors.

 

In addition to Dr. Spoor’s CAT scans, much other evidence has also been gathered. This has resulted in the downgrading of many famous skulls as fully ape and the upgrading of other fossil skulls as fully human.

 

Dr. Spoor is affiliated with University College, London (UCL). UCL was founded in 1826 as a fully secular institution. Virtually all colleges and universities up to that time were religiously affiliated from their founding. I point this out to show that UCL is no bastion of creationism yet Dr. Spoor’s work lends great support to the creationist position. It’s another case of “witness of the opposition” in support of creation.

 

Australopithecus (meaning “southern ape”) is the classification of a number of fossils of alleged human ancestors found in Africa. Among them is the famous fossil named “Lucy” discovered by Donald Johanson in Ethiopia in 1974. Casts of Lucy’s bones were made and shipped all over the world to be displayed in museums as an ape-woman. Lucy was depicted as the perfect transition between ape and human with ape-like facial features yet an upright human body.

 

One can only imagine the momentum this gave to the acceptance of the theory of evolution as millions of people viewed the Lucy displays. The displays served to undermine the book of Genesis, the first book of the Bible, that teaches that human beings are unique, distinct creatures created in God’s image.

 

It is now abundantly apparent that the museum displays of Lucy were not at all accurate because, among other things, the original Lucy skeleton was only 40% complete and did not include the upper jaw, most of the skull, nor hand or foot bones. The museum displays were therefore largely based on speculation and educated guesses. It was, as we so often see in paleoanthropology, educated men making educated guesses. It was poor science.

 

In time other parts of Australopithecus (same species as Lucy) skeletons were found which “have the long curved fingers and toes of tree dwellers, as well as the restricted wrist anatomy of knuckle walking chimpanzees and gorillas” (quoted from the article: Are There Ape-Men in Your Ancestry? by Russell Grigg M. Sc., Creation Magazine Vol. 25 No. 1 Dec. 2002-2003 p. 16-19.)

 

This discovery of more skeleton parts of the same species as Lucy served to prove that Lucy and all Australopithenes are fully ape and are not part human. They are not ape-men.

 

Dr. Fred Spoor did CAT scans of the inner ear regions of fossil Australopithecus skulls. The inner ear determines balance and posture. The CAT scans of the inner ear bone structure revealed that Australopithecus did not walk upright. According to Spoor, the inner ear structures resemble those of apes that are alive today. CAT scans were not available in 1974 and if they were, the Australopithecus as human ancestor hoax would likely have never happened. Lucy is fully ape and not ape-human.

 

This brings us to the classification Homo habilus (means “handy man”). In this group is Richard Leakey’s famous skull: KNM-ER 1470 which he discovered in Kenya in 1972. I recommend an article titled The Rise and Fall of Skull KNM-ER 1470  Creation Ex Nihilo Journal 13(2):96-100 1999 which describes skull 1470’s downgrade to ape status. The article (available online at answersingenesis.org) quotes many evolutionists to make the case for skull 1470’s downgrade.

 

Dr. Spoor did a CAT scan of a Homo habilus skull called Stw 53 and found that the inner ear structure indicated that it walked similar to a baboon. “Today most researchers, including Spoor regard Homo habilus as ‘a wastebin of various species’, including bits and pieces from Australopithecus and Homo erectus. and not as a valid category” (quoted from: Are There Ape-Men in Your Ancestry).

 

Now to the classification Homo erectus. Dr. Spoor’s CAT scans of Homo erectus skulls show that they did walk upright. This and other features of Homo erectus reveal they were fully human. Through Spoor’s CAT scans and other evidence we have seen that the fossil skulls are either fully ape or fully human.  None are transitional forms. None are ape-human. None confirm evolution. This outcome serves to confirm the truth of the book of Genesis.

 

It is gratifying yet ironic that it is largely the work of evolutionists doing basic research in paleoanthropology that has downgraded many famous fossil skulls and confirmed the creationist position. Basic researchers generally have the integrity to debunk a famous fossil because they work very close to the raw scientific evidence. It is sad that many textbook writers who are a step or two removed from the basic research still include famous fossils in textbooks as ape-men and ignore the fact that they were downgraded to fully ape status.

 

The missing links are still missing. The best evidence points to the fact that humans are distinct beings. The Bible teaches that God created human beings in His own image and we each possess a spirit and a soul that will, like God, live forever. “So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them” (Genesis 1: 27).

 

God has provided for forgiveness of sins by sending Jesus Christ to die for our sins. Christ came in fulfillment of over 300 prophecies that were written in the Old Testament hundreds of years before His birth. The prophets foretold that during His suffering and death on our behalf, Christ would take upon Himself the penalty we deserved for our sins, thus making atonement. “The LORD hath laid on him the iniquity of us all” (Isaiah 53:6). He rose from the dead to offer forgiveness of sins to all who repent and call on His name. Turn to Christ today to receive forgiveness of sins!

 

Steps to salvation:

“Whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved” (Romans 10:13) To receive the salvation that Jesus purchased for us at the terrible cost of His suffering and death on our behalf I invite you to pray this simple prayer:

“Dear heavenly Father, I thank you for sending Jesus, the promised Messiah, to die for my sins. I admit that I am a sinner. I repent of my sins and I ask for your forgiveness on the basis of the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. I ask you to fill me with your Holy Spirit to empower me to serve you under the Lordship of Jesus Christ, Amen.”

If you prayed that prayer in the humble sincerity of your heart then you have received everlasting life, which includes power to live right in this life and entrance into heaven in the afterlife!

Bill Nugent, Overcomer Ministries of Fort Mill, South Carolina, USA

New Christian book, Lawful or Legalistic by Bill Nugent available in paperback! Info and ordering link available on his website: ww.bnugent.org

Copyright 2017 William P. Nugent Permission granted to email or republish for Christian outreach.

DNA Mutation Rate Disproves Darwinian Evolution

by Bill Nugent

The recent mapping of the human genome (DNA) has been revolutionizing science and has immense practical applications in many fields, including law enforcement. You’ve certainly read that DNA evidence compellingly links perpetrators to crimes and sends them to jail. DNA evidence has, in many cases, set innocent people free. DNA evidence also reveals the fatal flaws of Darwinism.

 

Did you know that each baby is born with more than one hundred new genetic mutations? These are usually very minor “point” mutations that each involve only one nucleotide base pair in the DNA. These new point mutations are usually neutral or slightly harmful to the child. Nevertheless, it is very significant that mainstream geneticists are writing about the commonplace occurrence of mutations in DNA.

 

I will show that this generation by generation mutational deterioration of the DNA gives a major blow to the Darwinian evolution hypothesis.

 

Recently a German scientist attacked one of my articles on my blog over at WordPress.com. He’s affiliated with the Max Planck Institute of Berlin. He questioned what I wrote in an article about the large number of genetic differences between humans and chimpanzees. In his comments he acknowledged that a conservative estimate of the mutation rate is twenty glitches or copying errors in the DNA every generation. This is extraordinary and is clear evidence of genetic entropy. Scientists now generally agree that the DNA of humans is mutating rapidly.

 

My German critic was actually a bit behind the times. His conservative estimate of the mutation rate as being twenty point mutations per generation is woefully low. Geneticists such as Kondrashov give a low estimate of one hundred. Nachman and Crowell estimate 175 mutations per generation (see Genetic Entropy by Dr. John Sanford, FMS Publ. p. 34). These are astounding numbers of mutations when applied to Darwinist, millions of years at 25 years per generation presuppositions. It is massive damage to the human DNA when extrapolated to the Darwinist time frame. I would say it’s fatal to Darwinism.

 

All geneticists, whether evolutionary or creationist, agree that the overwhelming majority of mutations are harmful or neutral. I hesitate to use the term “neutral.” Even the neutral mutations have not been proven to be totally harmless. Even neutral mutations constitute a subtle degradation of the genome.

 

Cornell University geneticist, Dr. John Sanford, in his book Genetic Entropy, discusses, on page 26, the findings of a leading geneticist who sorted through thousands of mutations to find only 186 beneficial mutations versus 453,732 harmful mutations. That’s a ratio of 2,439 harmful mutations to every one beneficial mutation. The upshot is that the human genome is devolving, not evolving.

 

Evolutionists claim that harmful mutations are being eliminated by natural selection but this is not true. The mildly harmful mutations only tend to be eliminated over generations. The truth is that scientists in the field of population genetics have found that bad mutations are gradually accumulating in human DNA.

 

Most of these point mutations are claimed to be neutral; they don’t hurt us or help us. A point mutation involving the sequence of one base pair in a gene that codes for a protein would result in a slightly modified protein that is still useful to the body. Yet, as I Mentioned earlier, even “neutral” mutations constitute a subtle degradation of the DNA with unknown overall consequences. However, some point mutations can be horribly crippling or deadly. The mapping of the human genome has shown that cystic fibrosis is caused by a random change of just three base pairs in a gene that codes for a 1,480 base pair long ion transport protein.

 

There are nearly 4,000 diseases caused by DNA mutations and they are being studied all the time. How many beneficial mutations are being studied? Do a web search and you will find very few and even these beneficial mutations are not unequivocally beneficial. In other words, the “beneficial” mutations also affect some other biological pathways negatively.

 

Let’s put this in theological perspective. The book of Genesis, in the third chapter, gives the historical narrative of man’s fall into sin against God. This passage continues to describe the consequences of sin which is the curse. The curse manifests itself in many ways including the gradual breakdown and degradation of complex biological systems.

 

Operational geneticists of all theological persuasions or no theological persuasion observe the compelling evidence that the genome is degrading. The few beneficial mutations are crushed by an avalanche of neutral and harmful mutations. Furthermore, we must remember that mutations are errors that don’t add new information to the DNA. Mutations don’t add new base pairs that would add new organs to a body. Even gene duplication is a mere repeat of pre-existing information in the DNA. One cause of genetic mutations is radiation. Radiation doesn’t carry nucleotide base pairs and add them to the DNA. Radiation damages DNA as it is synthesized and rearranges the sequence of base pairs that already exist in the DNA.

 

In short, the beneficial mutations are too few in number and their failure to add new information renders the “beneficial mutation followed by natural selection” paradigm insufficient to account for the arrival and uphill change of living organisms.

 

There is much dissent against Darwinism in the scientific community. Many scientists have embraced Intelligent Design as a new paradigm and affiliate with the Discovery Institute of Seattle Washington.

 

Other scientists go further and believe in the Christian God as Creator. God has provided for forgiveness of sins by sending Jesus Christ to die for our sins. Christ came in fulfillment of over 300 prophecies that were written in the Old Testament hundreds of years before His birth. The prophets foretold that during His suffering and death on our behalf, Christ would take upon Himself the penalty we deserved for our sins, thus making atonement. “The LORD hath laid on him the iniquity of us all” (Isaiah 53:6). He rose from the dead to offer forgiveness of sins to all who repent and call on His name. Turn to Christ today to receive forgiveness of sins!