Category Archives: fossils

CAT Scans of Fossil Skulls Disprove Alleged Human Ancestors

by Bill Nugent

The CAT scan has not only revolutionized diagnostic medicine but has also revolutionized the study of fossil skulls. Dr. Fred Spoor, Anatomist at University College, London and joint editor of the Journal of Human Evolution has done CAT scans of many fossil skulls put forward by paleoanthropologists as potential human ancestors.

 

In addition to Dr. Spoor’s CAT scans, much other evidence has also been gathered. This has resulted in the downgrading of many famous skulls as fully ape and the upgrading of other fossil skulls as fully human.

 

Dr. Spoor is affiliated with University College, London (UCL). UCL was founded in 1826 as a fully secular institution. Virtually all colleges and universities up to that time were religiously affiliated from their founding. I point this out to show that UCL is no bastion of creationism yet Dr. Spoor’s work lends great support to the creationist position. It’s another case of “witness of the opposition” in support of creation.

 

Australopithecus (meaning “southern ape”) is the classification of a number of fossils of alleged human ancestors found in Africa. Among them is the famous fossil named “Lucy” discovered by Donald Johanson in Ethiopia in 1974. Casts of Lucy’s bones were made and shipped all over the world to be displayed in museums as an ape-woman. Lucy was depicted as the perfect transition between ape and human with ape-like facial features yet an upright human body.

 

One can only imagine the momentum this gave to the acceptance of the theory of evolution as millions of people viewed the Lucy displays. The displays served to undermine the book of Genesis, the first book of the Bible, that teaches that human beings are unique, distinct creatures created in God’s image.

 

It is now abundantly apparent that the museum displays of Lucy were not at all accurate because, among other things, the original Lucy skeleton was only 40% complete and did not include the upper jaw, most of the skull, nor hand or foot bones. The museum displays were therefore largely based on speculation and educated guesses. It was, as we so often see in paleoanthropology, educated men making educated guesses. It was poor science.

 

In time other parts of Australopithecus (same species as Lucy) skeletons were found which “have the long curved fingers and toes of tree dwellers, as well as the restricted wrist anatomy of knuckle walking chimpanzees and gorillas” (quoted from the article: Are There Ape-Men in Your Ancestry? by Russell Grigg M. Sc., Creation Magazine Vol. 25 No. 1 Dec. 2002-2003 p. 16-19.)

 

This discovery of more skeleton parts of the same species as Lucy served to prove that Lucy and all Australopithenes are fully ape and are not part human. They are not ape-men.

 

Dr. Fred Spoor did CAT scans of the inner ear regions of fossil Australopithecus skulls. The inner ear determines balance and posture. The CAT scans of the inner ear bone structure revealed that Australopithecus did not walk upright. According to Spoor, the inner ear structures resemble those of apes that are alive today. CAT scans were not available in 1974 and if they were, the Australopithecus as human ancestor hoax would likely have never happened. Lucy is fully ape and not ape-human.

 

This brings us to the classification Homo habilus (means “handy man”). In this group is Richard Leakey’s famous skull: KNM-ER 1470 which he discovered in Kenya in 1972. I recommend an article titled The Rise and Fall of Skull KNM-ER 1470  Creation Ex Nihilo Journal 13(2):96-100 1999 which describes skull 1470’s downgrade to ape status. The article (available online at answersingenesis.org) quotes many evolutionists to make the case for skull 1470’s downgrade.

 

Dr. Spoor did a CAT scan of a Homo habilus skull called Stw 53 and found that the inner ear structure indicated that it walked similar to a baboon. “Today most researchers, including Spoor regard Homo habilus as ‘a wastebin of various species’, including bits and pieces from Australopithecus and Homo erectus. and not as a valid category” (quoted from: Are There Ape-Men in Your Ancestry).

 

Now to the classification Homo erectus. Dr. Spoor’s CAT scans of Homo erectus skulls show that they did walk upright. This and other features of Homo erectus reveal they were fully human. Through Spoor’s CAT scans and other evidence we have seen that the fossil skulls are either fully ape or fully human.  None are transitional forms. None are ape-human. None confirm evolution. This outcome serves to confirm the truth of the book of Genesis.

 

It is gratifying yet ironic that it is largely the work of evolutionists doing basic research in paleoanthropology that has downgraded many famous fossil skulls and confirmed the creationist position. Basic researchers generally have the integrity to debunk a famous fossil because they work very close to the raw scientific evidence. It is sad that many textbook writers who are a step or two removed from the basic research still include famous fossils in textbooks as ape-men and ignore the fact that they were downgraded to fully ape status.

 

The missing links are still missing. The best evidence points to the fact that humans are distinct beings. The Bible teaches that God created human beings in His own image and we each possess a spirit and a soul that will, like God, live forever. “So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them” (Genesis 1: 27).

 

God has provided for forgiveness of sins by sending Jesus Christ to die for our sins. Christ came in fulfillment of over 300 prophecies that were written in the Old Testament hundreds of years before His birth. The prophets foretold that during His suffering and death on our behalf, Christ would take upon Himself the penalty we deserved for our sins, thus making atonement. “The LORD hath laid on him the iniquity of us all” (Isaiah 53:6). He rose from the dead to offer forgiveness of sins to all who repent and call on His name. Turn to Christ today to receive forgiveness of sins!

 

Steps to salvation:

“Whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved” (Romans 10:13) To receive the salvation that Jesus purchased for us at the terrible cost of His suffering and death on our behalf I invite you to pray this simple prayer:

“Dear heavenly Father, I thank you for sending Jesus, the promised Messiah, to die for my sins. I admit that I am a sinner. I repent of my sins and I ask for your forgiveness on the basis of the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. I ask you to fill me with your Holy Spirit to empower me to serve you under the Lordship of Jesus Christ, Amen.”

If you prayed that prayer in the humble sincerity of your heart then you have received everlasting life, which includes power to live right in this life and entrance into heaven in the afterlife!

Bill Nugent, Overcomer Ministries of Fort Mill, South Carolina, USA

New Christian book, Lawful or Legalistic by Bill Nugent available in paperback! Info and ordering link available on his website: ww.bnugent.org

Copyright 2017 William P. Nugent Permission granted to email or republish for Christian outreach.

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Proof that Genetic Mutations are Not a Mechanism for Evolution

Darwinists claim that the accumulation of favorable genetic mutations is how humans evolved from “goo to you by way of the zoo.” Recent advances in the science of genetics, especially the mapping of the human genome (DNA) and the mapping of animal genomes, has exposed the impossibility of mutations of being a Darwinian change mechanism.

You may remember from biology class that the DNA of humans and animals is composed of long chains of nucleotide base pairs. The base pairs are like the letters of an alphabet that contain information and that information is the design or body plan of the organism. A mutation is a change in the order or “sequence” of the base pairs or an elimination of base pairs or a duplication of base pairs.

All sides agree that mutations are rare and the large majority of mutations are either unfavorable or neutral. Of extreme importance to note is that mutations don’t add new information to the DNA. Mutations simply shuffle or delete pre-existing information. Mutations garble information. You’ve heard on the news that a virus has mutated but they often neglect to say that the mutation of the virus DNA resulted in a net loss of information in the virus DNA. No mutation has been shown to result in a net addition of information. No mutation adds base pairs except in cases of duplication of genes. Genetic duplication is simply giving the DNA an extra copy of the gene. It is not new information.

Some Darwinian scientists may be so bold as to claim that in rare instances mutations add new information to the DNA. However, the evidence furnished by real operational genetic science is against them.

Now let’s look at a simple illustration. In the jungle of East Africa there is an australopithecine ape. Evolutionists would call it a proto-human or prehuman. It walks on all fours and is just starting to leave the jungle and hunt in the surrounding fields. According to Darwinism it’s on its way to evolving into a human. Let’s say that a genetic mutation involving just 52 base pairs is about to happen to a gamete cell (reproductive cell such as egg or sperm) in the ape that will affect the design of the knee in the future offspring of the ape. The knee is the most complex and finely tuned joint in the ape’s body.

The design of an ape’s knee is likely determined by the sequence of thousands or perhaps tens of thousands of base pairs in the DNA. For simplicity let’s say that a reshuffling of just 52 base pairs can substantially alter knee structure in this ape’s offspring that will enable it to walk slightly more upright. But those 52 base pairs have to be shuffled into just the right sequence to affect the design of the knee in this advantageous way.

Fifty two happens to be the number of cards in a deck of ordinary playing cards. Let’s say that the reshuffling of the 52 base pairs to put the base pairs in a precise advantageous sequence is like shuffling a deck of cards and getting all four suits of cards in straight flush. Imagine shuffling cards and getting the hearts all in order: 2 of hearts, 3 of hearts, 4 of hearts all the way up to queen, king and ace of hearts and then the same for diamonds, clubs and spades.

Let’s say that radiation hits the gamete, causing a mutation involving 52 base pairs and the base pairs are reshuffled. The DNA doesn’t gain information but the preexisting information is garbled and it affects the design of the knee in a way that enables the ape offspring to walk slightly more upright. What is the probability of this actually happening in nature? That is a very big and important question!

Darwinism says that evolution is an unguided process involving genetic mutations that happen by blind chance. Natural selection then sorts out the products of blind chance and eliminates the weak. Natural selection is not a guiding mechanism but is a sorting mechanism.

Get out a deck of cards and start shuffling. Did you shuffle and get all four suits in straight flush? No? Let’s try again and again. Let’s calculate the odds of getting a 52 card straight flush. What is the chance that the first card in a newly shuffled deck comes out to be a 2 of hearts? That’s easy, it’s 1 in 52. You shuffle your deck 52 times and on average the 2 of hearts would be on top only once in that 52 shufflings. And once you’ve gotten that card to come up first what’s the chance of the second card being the 3 of hearts? That too is easy, it’s 1 in 51. The chance of getting just the first two cards in the right order would be 1 in 52 x 51 which would equal 1 in 2,652. Imagine sitting at your desk and shuffling a deck of cards 2,652 times just to have the top two cards be a 2 of hearts and a 3 of hearts one time during all that shuffling!

You then realize that the number of possible combinations of 52 cards is expressed by what your math teacher called “factorial 52” which is 52 x 51 x 50 x 49 x 48 x 47 x 46 . . . x 3 x 2 x 1. You get out your calculator and find that factorial 52 is equal to a sum greater than 8.07 x 10 to the 67th power! Think about how huge that number is. Scientists have estimated that the number of atoms in the Milky Way Galaxy is only 1 x 10 to the 65th power. The number of possible combinations of cards in an ordinary 52 card deck is nearly a thousand times greater than the number of atoms in the Milky Way Galaxy!

Now let’s see if we can get a 52 card straight flush by randomly shuffling decks of cards. If we were to put six and a half billion people to work shuffling decks of cards and they shuffled the card decks at the rate of one million decks per second and we employed them for fifteen billion years you would have less than a tenth of one percent chance of coming up with a 52 card hearts to spades straight flush in any of those decks at the end of fifteen billion years!!!

Now imagine a mutation that shuffles 52 base pairs in an ape’s DNA. If even one base pair is in the wrong sequence that could make the mutation disadvantageous. Even one base pair out of order could make the knee joint of the ape dysfunctional. Our card illustration showed that even if there were a million mutations per second there would be less than a tenth of one percent chance of getting that one properly sequenced 52 base pair favorable mutation in 15 billion years!

According to the results of the prodigious effort to map the human genome, human DNA contains about one billion nucleotide base pairs arranged in precise sequence. If even one is out of sequence it can be disadvantageous or even in some cases fatal to the human body. Chimpanzee DNA has also been mapped. Geneticists have determined that there are more than 30 million differences in nucleotide base pair sequences between chimpanzee DNA and human DNA. Evolutionists claim that chimps are our closest “cousins” and that chimps and humans supposedly evolved from the same apelike ancestor. Imagine the sheer number of favorable mutations and the number of base pairs involved that the Darwinist claims to have occurred during the alleged evolution from apelike creature to human!

The bottom line is that Darwinian blind chance shuffling of DNA base pairs caused by radiation or chemical mutagens is not even remotely capable of causing uphill macroevolutionary change in plants, animals or humans! The genetic evidence clearly points to the inadequacy of mutations as being the mechanism of evolution. This is just one of many fatal flaws in the theory of Darwinian evolution. Since secularists have no backup theory of materialistic origins they have to defend evolution tooth and nail or abandon secularism altogether and become theists.

All of the secularists, atheists and agnostics are surrounded by evidence that points to the necessity of God as Creator. As Romans 1:20 says: “For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what has been made, so that they are without excuse” (NASB).

God has provided for our redemption by sending Jesus of Nazareth, the promised Messiah of Israel. Jesus came in fulfillment of over 300 Old Testament prophecies. No other figure in all of world history can make this claim! Jesus died for our sins which means that when He suffered and died He took the penalty of our sins upon Himself. He rose from the dead to offer forgiveness to all who call upon Him. Turn to Christ today to receive forgiveness of sins!

Steps to salvation:
Jesus said “Ye must be born again.” (John 3:7)
1) Believe that God created you and loves you and sent the Messiah (Messiah is Hebrew for Christ) to redeem you.
2) Believe that Jesus the Messiah came in fulfillment of over 300 Bible prophecies to die for you and take upon Himself the penalty of your sins. (Isaiah 53:5-6, John 6:29, Romans 4:5, First Peter 3:18)
3) Turn from sin and call on the name of Jesus to receive forgiveness. (Romans 10:13)
4) Receive Jesus as Savior and experience the new birth. (John 1:12, Acts 2:38)
5) Follow Him as Lord. (John 14:21)
Prayer to receive salvation:

“Whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved” (Romans 10:13)
To receive the salvation that Jesus purchased for you at the terrible cost of His suffering and death on your behalf I invite you to pray this simple prayer: “Dear heavenly Father, I thank you for sending Jesus, the promised Messiah, to die for my sins. I admit that I am a sinner. I repent of my sins and I ask for your forgiveness on the basis of the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. I ask you to fill me with your Holy Spirit to empower me to serve you under the Lordship of Jesus Christ, Amen.”
If you prayed that prayer in the humble sincerity of your heart then you have received everlasting life, which includes power to live right in this life and entrance into heaven in the afterlife!

Bill Nugent, Overcomer Ministries of West Harrison, New York, USA
New Christian book, Lawful or Legalistic by Bill Nugent available in paperback!
Info and ordering link available on his website: http://www.gracelawandsonship.com

Back issues of Defending the Faith archived on website. {
(C) 2014 William P. Nugent, permission granted to email or republish for Christian outreach purposes.

Update On Controversy Over Blood and DNA Found in Dinosaur Bones

We’re closer to Jurassic Park. DNA has been found in dinosaur bones!

While excavating a Tyrannosaurus Rex skeleton from a cliff in the Hell’s Creek formation in Northwestern Montana in 2000, Bob Harmon and his team of paleontologists did something unusual. They broke the T. Rex leg bone in two. They said they had to break it in order to remove it by helicopter.

When they looked into the core of the bone they saw what appeared to be remnants of blood and soft tissue. They sent the find to Dr. Mary Schweitzer, a respected paleontologist of North Carolina State University, who had discovered blood remnants in dinosaur bones in the past.

Schweitzer and her team confirmed the finding of soft tissue and blood remnants in the bone. She was low key about the find yet it gained wide publicity even in the mainstream media. On March 24, 2005, MSNBC aired a documentary about the find and showed Schweitzer dissolving tissue in EDTA which is a chemical that breaks down the hard calcium that surrounds the soft tissue. The TV documentary showed, in live action, the bending and flexing of the soft tissue from the dinosaur bone.

There was a storm of controversy among old earth evolutionists who insisted that Schweitzer found nothing more than biofilm left by bacteria. Scientists know that no soft tissue of any kind could possibly be preserved in a dinosaur bone for 65 million years. Soft tissue is composed of highly complex and relatively unstable biopolymers such as proteins that would breakdown in far less time than even one million years. If it is indeed dinosaur soft tissue, then science will have to rethink the whole paradigm of the age of the dinosaurs and by extension, the age of the earth itself!

Schweitzer defended her work and did even more in-depth chemical analyses of the contents of the centers of dinosaur bones. According to the article: “Molecular Analyses of Dinosaur Osteocytes Support the Presence of Endogenous Molecules” by M. H. Schweitzer et al. Bone, 52 no. 1 (2013): 414-423 as reported in Perspective, Answers Magazine, April-June 2013, 9-10, Schweitzer found bone forming cells, called osteocytes, that are found only in bony creatures and are not from bacteria. This clearly undermines the claim that the soft tissue is bacterial biofilm.

Furthermore, she identified several proteins found only in bony creatures and most importantly, she found DNA. The DNA strands were identified as that which comes from a vertebrate and hence not bacterial in origin. The presence of dinosaur DNA in the bones strongly refutes the bacterial biofilm theory.

The Perspective column in Answers cited above, cites scientific studies that show that even under laboratory conditions DNA is unstable and breaks down quickly. One study of dated fossils showed a DNA half life of just 521 years. A half life of 521 years means DNA degrades so fast that it should not be detectible after just 12,000 years.

Most dinosaur bones are not really fossilized in the sense of petrification. Petrification occurs when silica infiltrates bone and dissolves away the calcium and replaces it with rock hard silicon. Petrification can happen quickly under certain conditions. Petrification has been seen to occur rapidly in modern times in a situation of hot volcanic ash. Most of the dinosaur bones you see in museum displays are not petrified but are composed of the calcium and phosphorous of natural bone.

Blood remnants and soft tissue remains have been found in dinosaur bones of several species. This strongly infers that dinosaur bones could not possibly be even one million years old. The young earth creationist position is that dinosaur carcasses were buried by sediments such as sand, clay and lime soon after death. These vast sedimentary deposits were laid down by the worldwide flood of Noah’s day that killed large numbers of land creatures. The sediments that buried the dinosaur carcasses hardened into sandstone and limestone. The biblical flood occurred, according to the Bible’s timeline, less than 5,000 years ago. This is consistent with the finding of small remnants of blood, soft tissue and DNA in dinosaur bones.

We have proof of the young age of dinosaurs and this, of course, wildly throws off the old earth evolutionary timeline. If dinosaurs lived, in large numbers, as recently as five thousand years ago it gives compelling proof that dinosaurs and other creatures did not evolve over eons of time. Dinosaurs, like all creatures, were created by God in fairly recent time.

A young age of dinosaurs is consistent with a young age of earth. The age of earth must be established by many other scientific avenues of proof. I’ve written about many young earth proofs in previous DTF articles. One such proof of young earth is the rapid rate of the decline of the strength of the earth’s magnetic field. The earth’s magnetic field has a half life of about 1400 years. If you extrapolate back just 20,000 years, the earth’s magnetic field would have been so strong back then as a starting point, that the earth’s magnetic field would have been as strong as that of a magnetic star. The high heat of such a strong magnetic field would have made life impossible. The magnetic field caps earth’s age at about 10,000 years or less.

The age of earth of less than 10,000 years is fatal to Darwinism which requires millions of years for life to evolve. Unfortunately, the concept of young earth is so far outside the mainstream of modern thought that even to talk about young earth will sometimes alienate your listeners. However, as the mounting evidence for young earth piles up, I’m confident that eventually the persistent mindset of old earth uniformitarianism will be reversed both in academia and among operational geologists.

The upshot is that the earth itself is evidence of the actions of the Creator. We must honor the Creator and be prepared to meet Him in the afterlife. The Bible declares that Jesus of Nazareth is the promised Messiah of Israel. The fact that Jesus is Messiah is backed up by His fulfillment of over 300 Old Testament prophecies and by other supernatural, miraculous signs. Jesus died for our sins, taking upon Himself the penalty we deserved for our sins. Forgiveness is found only through Christ. Call upon Jesus Christ today to receive forgiveness of sins!

Steps to salvation:
Jesus said “Ye must be born again.” (John 3:7)
1) Believe that God created you and loves you and sent the Messiah (Messiah is Hebrew for Christ) to redeem you.
2) Believe that Jesus the Messiah came in fulfillment of over 300 Bible prophecies to die for you and take upon Himself the penalty of your sins. (Isaiah 53:5-6, John 6:29, Romans 4:5, First Peter 3:18)
3) Turn from sin and call on the name of Jesus to receive forgiveness. (Romans 10:13)
4) Receive Jesus as Savior and experience the new birth. (John 1:12, Acts 2:38)
5) Follow Him as Lord. (John 14:21)
Prayer to receive salvation:

“Whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved” (Romans 10:13)
To receive the salvation that Jesus purchased for you at the terrible cost of His suffering and death on your behalf I invite you to pray this simple prayer: “Dear heavenly Father, I thank you for sending Jesus, the promised Messiah, to die for my sins. I admit that I am a sinner. I repent of my sins and I ask for your forgiveness on the basis of the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. I ask you to fill me with your Holy Spirit to empower me to serve you under the Lordship of Jesus Christ, Amen.”
If you prayed that prayer in the humble sincerity of your heart then you have received everlasting life, which includes power to live right in this life and entrance into heaven in the afterlife!

Bill Nugent, Overcomer Ministries of West Harrison, New York, USA
New Christian book, Lawful or Legalistic by Bill Nugent available in paperback!
Info and ordering link available on his website: http://www.gracelawandsonship.com

Back issues of Defending the Faith archived on website. {
(C) 2013 William P. Nugent, permission granted to email or republish for Christian outreach purposes.