Tag Archives: Australopithecine

Proof that Genetic Mutations are Not a Mechanism for Evolution

Darwinists claim that the accumulation of favorable genetic mutations is how humans evolved from “goo to you by way of the zoo.” Recent advances in the science of genetics, especially the mapping of the human genome (DNA) and the mapping of animal genomes, has exposed the impossibility of mutations of being a Darwinian change mechanism.

You may remember from biology class that the DNA of humans and animals is composed of long chains of nucleotide base pairs. The base pairs are like the letters of an alphabet that contain information and that information is the design or body plan of the organism. A mutation is a change in the order or “sequence” of the base pairs or an elimination of base pairs or a duplication of base pairs.

All sides agree that mutations are rare and the large majority of mutations are either unfavorable or neutral. Of extreme importance to note is that mutations don’t add new information to the DNA. Mutations simply shuffle or delete pre-existing information. Mutations garble information. You’ve heard on the news that a virus has mutated but they often neglect to say that the mutation of the virus DNA resulted in a net loss of information in the virus DNA. No mutation has been shown to result in a net addition of information. No mutation adds base pairs except in cases of duplication of genes. Genetic duplication is simply giving the DNA an extra copy of the gene. It is not new information.

Some Darwinian scientists may be so bold as to claim that in rare instances mutations add new information to the DNA. However, the evidence furnished by real operational genetic science is against them.

Now let’s look at a simple illustration. In the jungle of East Africa there is an australopithecine ape. Evolutionists would call it a proto-human or prehuman. It walks on all fours and is just starting to leave the jungle and hunt in the surrounding fields. According to Darwinism it’s on its way to evolving into a human. Let’s say that a genetic mutation involving just 52 base pairs is about to happen to a gamete cell (reproductive cell such as egg or sperm) in the ape that will affect the design of the knee in the future offspring of the ape. The knee is the most complex and finely tuned joint in the ape’s body.

The design of an ape’s knee is likely determined by the sequence of thousands or perhaps tens of thousands of base pairs in the DNA. For simplicity let’s say that a reshuffling of just 52 base pairs can substantially alter knee structure in this ape’s offspring that will enable it to walk slightly more upright. But those 52 base pairs have to be shuffled into just the right sequence to affect the design of the knee in this advantageous way.

Fifty two happens to be the number of cards in a deck of ordinary playing cards. Let’s say that the reshuffling of the 52 base pairs to put the base pairs in a precise advantageous sequence is like shuffling a deck of cards and getting all four suits of cards in straight flush. Imagine shuffling cards and getting the hearts all in order: 2 of hearts, 3 of hearts, 4 of hearts all the way up to queen, king and ace of hearts and then the same for diamonds, clubs and spades.

Let’s say that radiation hits the gamete, causing a mutation involving 52 base pairs and the base pairs are reshuffled. The DNA doesn’t gain information but the preexisting information is garbled and it affects the design of the knee in a way that enables the ape offspring to walk slightly more upright. What is the probability of this actually happening in nature? That is a very big and important question!

Darwinism says that evolution is an unguided process involving genetic mutations that happen by blind chance. Natural selection then sorts out the products of blind chance and eliminates the weak. Natural selection is not a guiding mechanism but is a sorting mechanism.

Get out a deck of cards and start shuffling. Did you shuffle and get all four suits in straight flush? No? Let’s try again and again. Let’s calculate the odds of getting a 52 card straight flush. What is the chance that the first card in a newly shuffled deck comes out to be a 2 of hearts? That’s easy, it’s 1 in 52. You shuffle your deck 52 times and on average the 2 of hearts would be on top only once in that 52 shufflings. And once you’ve gotten that card to come up first what’s the chance of the second card being the 3 of hearts? That too is easy, it’s 1 in 51. The chance of getting just the first two cards in the right order would be 1 in 52 x 51 which would equal 1 in 2,652. Imagine sitting at your desk and shuffling a deck of cards 2,652 times just to have the top two cards be a 2 of hearts and a 3 of hearts one time during all that shuffling!

You then realize that the number of possible combinations of 52 cards is expressed by what your math teacher called “factorial 52” which is 52 x 51 x 50 x 49 x 48 x 47 x 46 . . . x 3 x 2 x 1. You get out your calculator and find that factorial 52 is equal to a sum greater than 8.07 x 10 to the 67th power! Think about how huge that number is. Scientists have estimated that the number of atoms in the Milky Way Galaxy is only 1 x 10 to the 65th power. The number of possible combinations of cards in an ordinary 52 card deck is nearly a thousand times greater than the number of atoms in the Milky Way Galaxy!

Now let’s see if we can get a 52 card straight flush by randomly shuffling decks of cards. If we were to put six and a half billion people to work shuffling decks of cards and they shuffled the card decks at the rate of one million decks per second and we employed them for fifteen billion years you would have less than a tenth of one percent chance of coming up with a 52 card hearts to spades straight flush in any of those decks at the end of fifteen billion years!!!

Now imagine a mutation that shuffles 52 base pairs in an ape’s DNA. If even one base pair is in the wrong sequence that could make the mutation disadvantageous. Even one base pair out of order could make the knee joint of the ape dysfunctional. Our card illustration showed that even if there were a million mutations per second there would be less than a tenth of one percent chance of getting that one properly sequenced 52 base pair favorable mutation in 15 billion years!

According to the results of the prodigious effort to map the human genome, human DNA contains about one billion nucleotide base pairs arranged in precise sequence. If even one is out of sequence it can be disadvantageous or even in some cases fatal to the human body. Chimpanzee DNA has also been mapped. Geneticists have determined that there are more than 30 million differences in nucleotide base pair sequences between chimpanzee DNA and human DNA. Evolutionists claim that chimps are our closest “cousins” and that chimps and humans supposedly evolved from the same apelike ancestor. Imagine the sheer number of favorable mutations and the number of base pairs involved that the Darwinist claims to have occurred during the alleged evolution from apelike creature to human!

The bottom line is that Darwinian blind chance shuffling of DNA base pairs caused by radiation or chemical mutagens is not even remotely capable of causing uphill macroevolutionary change in plants, animals or humans! The genetic evidence clearly points to the inadequacy of mutations as being the mechanism of evolution. This is just one of many fatal flaws in the theory of Darwinian evolution. Since secularists have no backup theory of materialistic origins they have to defend evolution tooth and nail or abandon secularism altogether and become theists.

All of the secularists, atheists and agnostics are surrounded by evidence that points to the necessity of God as Creator. As Romans 1:20 says: “For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what has been made, so that they are without excuse” (NASB).

God has provided for our redemption by sending Jesus of Nazareth, the promised Messiah of Israel. Jesus came in fulfillment of over 300 Old Testament prophecies. No other figure in all of world history can make this claim! Jesus died for our sins which means that when He suffered and died He took the penalty of our sins upon Himself. He rose from the dead to offer forgiveness to all who call upon Him. Turn to Christ today to receive forgiveness of sins!

Steps to salvation:
Jesus said “Ye must be born again.” (John 3:7)
1) Believe that God created you and loves you and sent the Messiah (Messiah is Hebrew for Christ) to redeem you.
2) Believe that Jesus the Messiah came in fulfillment of over 300 Bible prophecies to die for you and take upon Himself the penalty of your sins. (Isaiah 53:5-6, John 6:29, Romans 4:5, First Peter 3:18)
3) Turn from sin and call on the name of Jesus to receive forgiveness. (Romans 10:13)
4) Receive Jesus as Savior and experience the new birth. (John 1:12, Acts 2:38)
5) Follow Him as Lord. (John 14:21)
Prayer to receive salvation:

“Whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved” (Romans 10:13)
To receive the salvation that Jesus purchased for you at the terrible cost of His suffering and death on your behalf I invite you to pray this simple prayer: “Dear heavenly Father, I thank you for sending Jesus, the promised Messiah, to die for my sins. I admit that I am a sinner. I repent of my sins and I ask for your forgiveness on the basis of the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. I ask you to fill me with your Holy Spirit to empower me to serve you under the Lordship of Jesus Christ, Amen.”
If you prayed that prayer in the humble sincerity of your heart then you have received everlasting life, which includes power to live right in this life and entrance into heaven in the afterlife!

Bill Nugent, Overcomer Ministries of West Harrison, New York, USA
New Christian book, Lawful or Legalistic by Bill Nugent available in paperback!
Info and ordering link available on his website: http://www.gracelawandsonship.com

Back issues of Defending the Faith archived on website. {
(C) 2014 William P. Nugent, permission granted to email or republish for Christian outreach purposes.

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Haldane’s Dilemma Shows Impossibility of Ape to Human Evolution

Did you know that an article written in 1957 by a leading evolutionist essentially showed the impossibility of ape to human evolution? Haldane caused a great dilemma for evolutionists through his seminal article. The controversy continues even to this day.

John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (1892-1964), born to an aristocratic intellectual family of Scottish descent, was one of the leading evolutionists of his generation. A graduate of Oxford, he taught for many years at University College. London’s University College, established in 1826, was the first university in England founded on an entirely secular basis.

Haldane was one of the founders of the field of population genetics. Toward the end of his life he migrated to India, became an Indian citizen and taught at a leading university there. Haldane was also an atheist who embraced socialism and Marxism.

In 1957, Haldane published a seminal paper that was to shake up the field of evolutionary biology and reveal one of the fatal flaws of the theory of evolution. His paper was titled simply, “The Cost of Natural Selection.” You know the expression, “do the math.” In this paper, Haldane did the math on evolution. Haldane, not being a creationist, did his study as an ardent believer in evolution, yet still revealed a fatal flaw in Darwinian evolution.

In the paper, Haldane worked from the following two premises:
1) Natural selection is a destructive process that eliminates the unfit.
2) Genetic mutations can be transmitted to the next generation only by the survivors. Evolution is a theory dependant on the death of all those without the favorable genetic mutations. The death of the unfit is the cost of natural selection. Haldane calculated the cost of natural selection and found that evolution crumbled under the burdensome cost.

Haldane put numbers and probability calculations on ape populations allowing for favorable survivability rates for apes with beneficial genetic mutations. Evolution requires not only a very large number of rare favorable genetic mutations but also that each of these mutations be substituted into every future individual in the population. This substitution into the population requires a complete turnover of the gene pool in which only the apes with the new favorable mutations survive to comprise the new population.

Imagine an ape being born with a genetic mutation that gives it a slightly modified knee to help it walk slightly more erect. How many generations would it take for that one mutation to spread to an ape population of 100,000 apes scattered across a continent? The apes without the knee mutation have to die off and only the ones with the slightly better knee survive. That’s only one mutation and ape to human evolution requires millions of mutations.

We all remember being taught in school that favorable genetic mutations are rare and that most genetic mutations are either neutral or unfavorable. Even if we modify Haldane’s numbers and bias them in favor of evolution and assume many favorable mutations and ideal conditions of survivability, we find that ten million years isn’t enough time for ape to human evolution.

Consider this quote from the article: Haldane’s Dilemma Has Not Been Solved” by Don Batten, Ph. D., Journal of Creation 19(1):20–21 April 2005:

“Imagine a population of 100,000 apes, the putative progenitors of humans. Suppose that a male and a female both received a mutation so beneficial that they out-survived everyone else; all the rest of the population died out—all 99,998 of them. And then the surviving pair had enough offspring to replenish the population in one generation. And this repeated every generation (every 20 years) for 10 million years, more than the supposed time since the last common ancestor of humans and apes. That would mean that 500,000 beneficial mutations could be added to the population (i.e., 10,000,000/20). Even with this completely unrealistic scenario, which maximizes evolutionary progress, only about 0.02% of the human genome could be generated. Considering that the difference between the DNA of a human and a chimp, our supposed closest living relative, is greater than 5%, evolution has an obvious problem in explaining the origin of the genetic information in a creature such as a human.”

The above quote gives fantastically favorable conditions for the transmittal of favorable mutations to each succeeding generation yet shows that only 500,000 favorable mutations could be substituted into the gene pool in ten million years. By the way, there are more than 12,000,000 genetic differences between chimpanzees and humans. Even the grossly exaggerated favorable conditions described in the above quote would give only a tiny fraction of the genetic changes needed to turn an ape into a human.

Using far more realistic numbers, Haldane calculated that only about 1,667 genetic changes could be substituted into the gene pool of the human race in ten million years! Haldane gave a realistic and very pessimistic (for the evolutionist) number of substituted genetic changes in his calculations. Haldane’s numbers clearly show that ape to human evolution in ten million years is impossible.

Haldane was not a creationist. He was an atheist evolutionist and yet he openly admitted that there was not enough time in ten million years. If you run his numbers on a longer time scale it’s obvious that even a billion years is not enough time to evolve apes into humans.

Haldane, mindful of the mind blowing ramifications, invited his evolutionist colleagues to counter or refute his findings. His article generated much discussion for a few years. Haldane’s dilemma could not be resolved in the secular, atheistic evolution context.

The concept of Haldane’s dilemma languished for decades as it was ignored by the frustrated and embarrassed evolutionists. Evolutionists moved on to hail the discovery of incomplete skeletons of Australopithenes in Africa. People seemed to assume that a beneficial mutation instantly changes the DNA in all of the individuals in a huge population. Of course, that is simply not the case. A genetic mutation affects the genes of one individual and all of the individuals without the mutation have to die off for the new favorable mutation to predominate in a population.

In the 1990s, creationists revived discussion of Haldane’s dilemma with the publication of a book by Walter ReMine, titled The Biotic Message that articulated Haldane’s Dilemma and updated it with more recent scientific findings in the field of genetics. This fine book brought on much needed discussion and analysis. Evolutionists wrote lengthy articles and bandied about terms such as “genetic drift” but ultimately offered no credible rebuttal.

The cost of natural selection is the death of the entire population without the favorable mutations. This cost has been minimized by evolutionists since Haldane published his article in 1957. Now that both human and chimp DNA have been decoded it is abundantly clear that human and chimp DNA are more different than what evolutionists expected. The claim of 12,000,000 genetic differences is actually a conservative number. This fact deepens Haldane’s dilemma. Emperor evolution has no clothes!

Evolution has become the origins myth of our secular society. The teaching of evolution in the government run schools has caused multitudes of young people to reject God. Every society has a mythology or meta-narrative that gives it a reason for being. The meta-narrative of traditional western civilization has been Christianity. Now that Christianity has been largely banished from education and evolution installed in its place, western civilization has gone into a death spiral of drugs, abortion, crime and suicide. The birth rate has fallen far below replacement level and in some western countries the birth rate is less than half of replacement level. Children who are taught that they are soul-less descendants of apes grow up to act like animals!

The west thrived and expanded when Christianity was its civil religion. Christianity is, however, much more than just a civil religion. It is precious truth. Jesus Christ came in fulfillment of over 300 prophecies written in the Old Testament hundreds of years before His birth. Additionally, Jesus worked miracles before eyewitnesses that proved He is the promised Messiah of Israel. He came to live a perfect life and then suffer and die, taking upon Himself the punishment due to us because of our sins. Turn to Christ today to receive forgiveness of sins!

Steps to salvation:
Jesus said “Ye must be born again.” (John 3:7)
1) Believe that God created you and loves you and sent the Messiah (Messiah is Hebrew for Christ) to redeem you.
2) Believe that Jesus the Messiah came in fulfillment of over 300 Bible prophecies to die for you and take upon Himself the penalty of your sins. (Isaiah 53:5-6, John 6:29, Romans 4:5, First Peter 3:18)
3) Turn from sin and call on the name of Jesus to receive forgiveness. (Romans 10:13)
4) Receive Jesus as Savior and experience the new birth. (John 1:12, Acts 2:38)
5) Follow Him as Lord. (John 14:21)
Prayer to receive salvation:

“Whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved” (Romans 10:13)
To receive the salvation that Jesus purchased for you at the terrible cost of His suffering and death on your behalf I invite you to pray this simple prayer: “Dear heavenly Father, I thank you for sending Jesus, the promised Messiah, to die for my sins. I admit that I am a sinner. I repent of my sins and I ask for your forgiveness on the basis of the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. I ask you to fill me with your Holy Spirit to empower me to serve you under the Lordship of Jesus Christ, Amen.”
If you prayed that prayer in the humble sincerity of your heart then you have received everlasting life, which includes power to live right in this life and entrance into heaven in the afterlife!

Bill Nugent, Overcomer Ministries of West Harrison, New York, USA
New Christian book, Lawful or Legalistic by Bill Nugent available in paperback!
Info and ordering link available on his website: http://www.gracelawandsonship.com

Back issues of Defending the Faith archived on website. {
(C) 2012 William P. Nugent, permission granted to email or republish if credit given.