Tag Archives: Dilemma

The Lack of Beneficial DNA Mutations is Troubling

There are over seven billion people alive on earth today. The DNA of all people is well over 99% similar. The less than one percent difference is in minor details including skin color and facial features. The “races” are each fully human and there is no subspecies of humans possessing markedly different DNA.
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Darwinian evolutionists claim that humans evolved from an ape-like common ancestor that lived 5 to 7 million years ago and they claim that the chimpanzee is our nearest animal relative. Evolutionists claim that evolution is still occurring today among humans. They claim that human evolution is driven by beneficial DNA mutations. Where are all the beneficial mutations?
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I did several web searches, including “beneficial human mutations” and “genetic mutation disease.” What I found was extremely revealing and it served to severely undermine the theory of Darwinian evolution.
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Let’s start with an article from an evolutionist. I read an article titled: “Evolution is Still Happening: Beneficial Mutations in Humans” by Adam Lee which is posted on an evolutionist blog. He describes a total of five beneficial human mutations:
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1) The mutation, Apolipoprotein AI-Milano gives resistance to heart disease.
2) Mutation to the LRP5 gene gives greater bone density and resistance to osteoporosis and fractures.
3) Mutation to Hbs gene gives resistance to malaria but two copies gives the dreaded sickle cell anemia. (Why is this on a list of beneficial mutations?)
4) Mutation to HbC gene gives resistance to malaria and two copies gives greater resistance to malaria but also gives mild anemia.
5) His fifth example is the rare Tetrachromatic vision mutation for which he mentions one study in which at least one woman had a mutation giving her four color discriminating cones in her eyes which gives her greater color discrimination.
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Adam Lee includes the following absurd claim that these “beneficial mutations are the raw material that may, in time, be taken up by natural selection and spread through the population.” One could argue that the above mutations do confer a limited degree of advantage and survivability of offspring. To claim that such mutations “spread through the population” is to give the impression that mutations simply spread through a gene pool like an infectious disease!
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Mutations to DNA are transmitted to other humans by only one mechanism, namely, reproduction. Those with a beneficial mutation will enjoy a slightly higher degree of survival and produce more offspring that survive. For any beneficial mutation to predominate in the human gene pool and advance humans one small step in evolution would require hundreds of generations. During these hundreds of generations, the unfortunate humans without the beneficial mutation would gradually die off and gradually be replaced by the humans with the slightly higher survivability rate. The gene pool would then have the beneficial mutation as a feature in the genes of all humans.
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Why do I insist that the beneficial mutation be substituted into the DNA of all humans? That’s because, as mentioned above, the DNA of all of the human race is over 99% similar and there is no subspecies of humans with DNA containing significant beneficial mutations that would set them apart. This scientifically verified uniformity of the gene pool shows that any alleged evolution in the past must have resulted in substitution of genetic mutations into the entire gene pool of 7 billion humans spread across six continents.
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All humans have the same brain structure; all have thumbs as opposing finger digits; all have the same knee structure that facilitates walking upright; all have hair on the head but little to no hair on the body. All people are remarkably similar whether from northern Sweden or central Africa. All people groups can intermarry and reproduce.
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The long complex process of a beneficial mutation being substituted into a gene pool is a feature of population genetics. The fact that it takes hundreds of generations to fully substitute a mutation into a population has been calculated by Haldane and others. The fact that 7 million years is not enough time to substitute the millions of mutations needed to change an ape into a human is called Haldane’s Dilemma after evolution researcher, J. B. S. Haldane.
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Let’s look at Adam Lee’s list of beneficial mutations. I find the mutation that causes greater bone density to be especially intriguing. Let’s look at what’s really going on in the human gene pool of 7 billion individuals. Do people with this bone density mutation reproduce at a higher rate than others? Are they having ten or twelve children in their families? Adam Lee’s article mentions only one family in the Midwestern United States with this mutation and he says nothing about their reproduction rate. Does a guy say “Give me a gal with dense bones and I’ll marry her and we’ll have twelve kids!”?
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What about the mutation that gives resistance to heart disease? It benefits middle aged people. People die of heart disease in their fifties and later and that’s long after they have kids. How would that mutation influence their rate of reproduction?
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Does observational science see any of these or other beneficial mutations gradually being substituted into the human gene pool? Is there a subspecies of humans developing with beneficial mutations and becoming a master race? (Don’t ask the Germans!) The answer is a resounding no! Beneficial mutations are few, isolated and not much more than curiosities.
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I also did a web search on genetic mutation diseases. I had read in an article that there are thousands of diseases caused by bad mutations. I thought surely “thousands” of such diseases was an exaggeration. That is until I web searched such diseases. I found a Wikipedia site that  gave an extremely long list of genetic mutation related diseases.
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I’ve heard of Down syndrome and cystic Fibrosis but what about Noack syndrome, Neurofibromatosis type II, Menkes disease and Menkea syndrome? The list, tragically, goes on and on! It shows that bad mutations overwhelmingly outnumber the good. This is just further evidence that mutations are no mechanism for uphill evolutionary change.
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The bottom line is that observational science clearly shows that beneficial mutations are rare, only slightly advantageous to reproduction rates and can’t dominate in the human gene pool due to Haldane’s dilemma even if millions of years are claimed.
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The more the science of genetics progresses, the more it reveals the mind boggling complexity of human DNA as an information storage and retrieval system. Science shows that such a complex system as DNA is seldom improved by tweaks caused by mutations. Studies overwhelmingly show that genetic mutations are destructive errors that scramble or delete pre-existing information in the DNA. Most importantly, researchers have discovered that mutations, whether good or bad, almost never add new information to the DNA. Some researchers say that mutations never add new information to DNA.
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The best scientific evidence shows that complex, interdependant biological systems are evidence of deliberate intelligent design. This design argument is called the teleological argument for the existence of a designer. I maintain that life was designed and built by an intelligent designer who is the Creator God. God created sentient beings, called humans, for a purpose. That purpose is to love God and to enjoy Him forever.
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Jesus Christ came in fulfillment of over 300 prophecies that were written in the Old Testament hundreds of years before His birth. No other person in all of world history can make this claim. The prophecies foretold that Christ would suffer and die, taking the penalty of our sins upon Himself, thus making atonement. The prophecies foretold that He would rise from the dead and that He would offer forgiveness of sins to all who repent and call upon Him. Turn to Jesus Christ today to receive forgiveness of sins!
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Steps to salvation:
Jesus said “Ye must be born again.”
(John 3:7)
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1) Believe that God created you and loves you and sent the Messiah (Messiah is Hebrew for Christ) to redeem you.
2) Believe that Jesus the Messiah came in fulfillment of over 300 Bible prophecies to die for you to take upon Himself the penalty of your sins. (Isaiah 53:5-6, John 6:29, Romans 4:5, First Peter 3:18)
3) Turn from sin and call on the name of Jesus to receive forgiveness. (Romans 10:13)
4) Receive Jesus as Savior and experience the new birth. (John 1:12, Acts 2:38)
5) Follow Him as Lord. (John 14:21)

Prayer to receive salvation:

“Whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved” (Romans 10:13)
To receive the salvation that Jesus purchased for us at the terrible cost of His suffering and death on our behalf I invite you to pray this simple prayer: “Dear heavenly Father, I thank you for sending Jesus, the promised Messiah, to die for my sins. I admit that I am a sinner. I repent of my sins and I ask for your forgiveness on the basis of the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. I ask you to fill me with your Holy Spirit to empower me to serve you under the Lordship of Jesus Christ, Amen.”
If you prayed this prayer in the humble sincerity of your heart then you have received everlasting life, which includes power to live right in this life and entrance into heaven in the afterlife!

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Bill Nugent, Overcomer Ministries of Fort Mill, South Carolina, USA
New Christian book, Lawful or Legalistic by Bill Nugent available in paperback!
Info and ordering link available at his website: www.gracelawandsonship.com
Back issues of Defending the Faith archived on website. <>{
(C) 2016 William P. Nugent, permission granted to email or republish for Christian outreach.

Haldane’s Dilemma Shows Impossibility of Ape to Human Evolution

Did you know that an article written in 1957 by a leading evolutionist essentially showed the impossibility of ape to human evolution? Haldane caused a great dilemma for evolutionists through his seminal article. The controversy continues even to this day.

John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (1892-1964), born to an aristocratic intellectual family of Scottish descent, was one of the leading evolutionists of his generation. A graduate of Oxford, he taught for many years at University College. London’s University College, established in 1826, was the first university in England founded on an entirely secular basis.

Haldane was one of the founders of the field of population genetics. Toward the end of his life he migrated to India, became an Indian citizen and taught at a leading university there. Haldane was also an atheist who embraced socialism and Marxism.

In 1957, Haldane published a seminal paper that was to shake up the field of evolutionary biology and reveal one of the fatal flaws of the theory of evolution. His paper was titled simply, “The Cost of Natural Selection.” You know the expression, “do the math.” In this paper, Haldane did the math on evolution. Haldane, not being a creationist, did his study as an ardent believer in evolution, yet still revealed a fatal flaw in Darwinian evolution.

In the paper, Haldane worked from the following two premises:
1) Natural selection is a destructive process that eliminates the unfit.
2) Genetic mutations can be transmitted to the next generation only by the survivors. Evolution is a theory dependant on the death of all those without the favorable genetic mutations. The death of the unfit is the cost of natural selection. Haldane calculated the cost of natural selection and found that evolution crumbled under the burdensome cost.

Haldane put numbers and probability calculations on ape populations allowing for favorable survivability rates for apes with beneficial genetic mutations. Evolution requires not only a very large number of rare favorable genetic mutations but also that each of these mutations be substituted into every future individual in the population. This substitution into the population requires a complete turnover of the gene pool in which only the apes with the new favorable mutations survive to comprise the new population.

Imagine an ape being born with a genetic mutation that gives it a slightly modified knee to help it walk slightly more erect. How many generations would it take for that one mutation to spread to an ape population of 100,000 apes scattered across a continent? The apes without the knee mutation have to die off and only the ones with the slightly better knee survive. That’s only one mutation and ape to human evolution requires millions of mutations.

We all remember being taught in school that favorable genetic mutations are rare and that most genetic mutations are either neutral or unfavorable. Even if we modify Haldane’s numbers and bias them in favor of evolution and assume many favorable mutations and ideal conditions of survivability, we find that ten million years isn’t enough time for ape to human evolution.

Consider this quote from the article: Haldane’s Dilemma Has Not Been Solved” by Don Batten, Ph. D., Journal of Creation 19(1):20–21 April 2005:

“Imagine a population of 100,000 apes, the putative progenitors of humans. Suppose that a male and a female both received a mutation so beneficial that they out-survived everyone else; all the rest of the population died out—all 99,998 of them. And then the surviving pair had enough offspring to replenish the population in one generation. And this repeated every generation (every 20 years) for 10 million years, more than the supposed time since the last common ancestor of humans and apes. That would mean that 500,000 beneficial mutations could be added to the population (i.e., 10,000,000/20). Even with this completely unrealistic scenario, which maximizes evolutionary progress, only about 0.02% of the human genome could be generated. Considering that the difference between the DNA of a human and a chimp, our supposed closest living relative, is greater than 5%, evolution has an obvious problem in explaining the origin of the genetic information in a creature such as a human.”

The above quote gives fantastically favorable conditions for the transmittal of favorable mutations to each succeeding generation yet shows that only 500,000 favorable mutations could be substituted into the gene pool in ten million years. By the way, there are more than 12,000,000 genetic differences between chimpanzees and humans. Even the grossly exaggerated favorable conditions described in the above quote would give only a tiny fraction of the genetic changes needed to turn an ape into a human.

Using far more realistic numbers, Haldane calculated that only about 1,667 genetic changes could be substituted into the gene pool of the human race in ten million years! Haldane gave a realistic and very pessimistic (for the evolutionist) number of substituted genetic changes in his calculations. Haldane’s numbers clearly show that ape to human evolution in ten million years is impossible.

Haldane was not a creationist. He was an atheist evolutionist and yet he openly admitted that there was not enough time in ten million years. If you run his numbers on a longer time scale it’s obvious that even a billion years is not enough time to evolve apes into humans.

Haldane, mindful of the mind blowing ramifications, invited his evolutionist colleagues to counter or refute his findings. His article generated much discussion for a few years. Haldane’s dilemma could not be resolved in the secular, atheistic evolution context.

The concept of Haldane’s dilemma languished for decades as it was ignored by the frustrated and embarrassed evolutionists. Evolutionists moved on to hail the discovery of incomplete skeletons of Australopithenes in Africa. People seemed to assume that a beneficial mutation instantly changes the DNA in all of the individuals in a huge population. Of course, that is simply not the case. A genetic mutation affects the genes of one individual and all of the individuals without the mutation have to die off for the new favorable mutation to predominate in a population.

In the 1990s, creationists revived discussion of Haldane’s dilemma with the publication of a book by Walter ReMine, titled The Biotic Message that articulated Haldane’s Dilemma and updated it with more recent scientific findings in the field of genetics. This fine book brought on much needed discussion and analysis. Evolutionists wrote lengthy articles and bandied about terms such as “genetic drift” but ultimately offered no credible rebuttal.

The cost of natural selection is the death of the entire population without the favorable mutations. This cost has been minimized by evolutionists since Haldane published his article in 1957. Now that both human and chimp DNA have been decoded it is abundantly clear that human and chimp DNA are more different than what evolutionists expected. The claim of 12,000,000 genetic differences is actually a conservative number. This fact deepens Haldane’s dilemma. Emperor evolution has no clothes!

Evolution has become the origins myth of our secular society. The teaching of evolution in the government run schools has caused multitudes of young people to reject God. Every society has a mythology or meta-narrative that gives it a reason for being. The meta-narrative of traditional western civilization has been Christianity. Now that Christianity has been largely banished from education and evolution installed in its place, western civilization has gone into a death spiral of drugs, abortion, crime and suicide. The birth rate has fallen far below replacement level and in some western countries the birth rate is less than half of replacement level. Children who are taught that they are soul-less descendants of apes grow up to act like animals!

The west thrived and expanded when Christianity was its civil religion. Christianity is, however, much more than just a civil religion. It is precious truth. Jesus Christ came in fulfillment of over 300 prophecies written in the Old Testament hundreds of years before His birth. Additionally, Jesus worked miracles before eyewitnesses that proved He is the promised Messiah of Israel. He came to live a perfect life and then suffer and die, taking upon Himself the punishment due to us because of our sins. Turn to Christ today to receive forgiveness of sins!

Steps to salvation:
Jesus said “Ye must be born again.” (John 3:7)
1) Believe that God created you and loves you and sent the Messiah (Messiah is Hebrew for Christ) to redeem you.
2) Believe that Jesus the Messiah came in fulfillment of over 300 Bible prophecies to die for you and take upon Himself the penalty of your sins. (Isaiah 53:5-6, John 6:29, Romans 4:5, First Peter 3:18)
3) Turn from sin and call on the name of Jesus to receive forgiveness. (Romans 10:13)
4) Receive Jesus as Savior and experience the new birth. (John 1:12, Acts 2:38)
5) Follow Him as Lord. (John 14:21)
Prayer to receive salvation:

“Whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved” (Romans 10:13)
To receive the salvation that Jesus purchased for you at the terrible cost of His suffering and death on your behalf I invite you to pray this simple prayer: “Dear heavenly Father, I thank you for sending Jesus, the promised Messiah, to die for my sins. I admit that I am a sinner. I repent of my sins and I ask for your forgiveness on the basis of the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. I ask you to fill me with your Holy Spirit to empower me to serve you under the Lordship of Jesus Christ, Amen.”
If you prayed that prayer in the humble sincerity of your heart then you have received everlasting life, which includes power to live right in this life and entrance into heaven in the afterlife!

Bill Nugent, Overcomer Ministries of West Harrison, New York, USA
New Christian book, Lawful or Legalistic by Bill Nugent available in paperback!
Info and ordering link available on his website: http://www.gracelawandsonship.com

Back issues of Defending the Faith archived on website. {
(C) 2012 William P. Nugent, permission granted to email or republish if credit given.